Read monthly Project Performance International's Systems Engineering Newsjournal, named "PPI SyEN". PPI SyEN presents for the engineering professional 30-60 pages of valuable technical articles on topical subjects, shorter technical pieces, in-depth coverage of the month's news in systems engineering and directly related fields, pointers to useful resources and relevant industry events, plus limited information on PPI's activities.

Welcome to PPI SyEN 36


A Quotation to Open On

Feature Article: Capers Jones – Software Defect Removal Efficiency

Systems Engineering News

  • PMI and INCOSE Align to Help Organizations Improve Program Success
  • Resilience Innovation Laboratory and the (Newly Formed) Resilience Engineering Association
  • Jon Holt Valorizes MBSE with his Lecture: “Making Houdini Safe”
  • Mentor Graphics’ System Vision Wins NI LabView Award
  • Streamline Systems Demonstrates Ability
  • Northrop Grumman Information Systems President Neil G. Siegel Awarded Systems Engineering Award
  • Kansas Adopts System to Detect Aid Fraud
  • Strategy Bridge Presentation Accepted for NDIA Systems Engineering Conference
  • IBM and University of Texas Develop a Flood Prediction System

Featured Society – TBD


  • Call for Nominations
  • Upcoming INCOSE Events
  • INCOSE eNote
  • Autonomous System Test & Evaluation Working Group

Systems Engineering Tools News

  • A Practical Guide to SysML. Edition No. 2 is Written by the Leader and Two Key Members of the OMG SysML Standardization Team

Systems Engineering Books, Reports, Articles and Papers

  • Systems Engineering Principles and Practice

Conferences and Meetings

  • INCOSE International Symposium 2012 – Call for Papers, Panels, and Tutorials, Rome, Italy, July 9-12, 2012
  • IIBA Webinar Series
  • Enterprise Transformation Conference
  • No Magic World Conference

Education and Academia

  • Postdoctoral Research Position at Oxford Brookes University
  • Research Associate in Systems of Systems Engineering, Loughborough University

Some Systems Engineering-Relevant Websites

  • Ten Ugly Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Tools that Actually Rock

Standards and Guides

  • About ISO
  • How International Standards Create Global Confidence
  • Announcing IEEE’s New Standards Education e-Magazine

A Definition to Close on – TBD

PPI News – TBD

A Quotation to Open On

“The academic system of measuring performance leads to the creation of large numbers of write-only publications.” – Ian Sommerville

Feature Article

Software Defect Removal Efficiency


Capers Jones, President

Capers Jones & Associates LLC

Email: CJonesiii@cs.com


The most important contributor to the quality of software-intensive systems is the quality of the software components. The most important single metric for software quality is that of defect removal efficiency (DRE). The DRE metric measures the percentage of bugs or defects found and removed prior to delivery of the software. The current U.S. average in 2011 is only about 85% of total defects removed. However, best in class projects can top 99% in defect removal efficiency. High levels of DRE cannot be achieved using testing alone. Pre-test inspections and static analysis are necessary to top 95% in defect removal efficiency.

Copyright 2011 by Capers Jones & Associates LLC. All rights reserved.


In the 1970’s the author worked for IBM. Software applications were growing larger and more complex so quality was becoming a serious issue. IBM began a careful analysis of software quality. Measurements were taken of defects found in software requirements, design documents, source code, user manuals, and also “bad fixes” or secondary defects accidentally included in defect repairs.

At the same time IBM developed the function point metric, because it was necessary to analyze non-coding defects and non-coding development activities as well. After several years of data collection, it was possible to determine the relative contribution of various defect origins on total software defects. The total number of defects from all five sources was termed the “defect potential” of a software application.

Table 1 shows approximate U.S. averages from more than 13,000 projects. Table 1 shows the average volumes of defects found on software projects, and the average percentage of defects removed prior to delivery to customers:

Table 1: Defect Removal Efficiency by Origin of Defects Circa 2011

(Data Expressed in Terms of Defects per Function Point)

Defect Origins Defect Removal Delivered

Potentials Efficiency Defects

Requirements 1.00 77% 0.23

Design 1.25 85% 0.19

Coding 1.75 95% 0.09

Document 0.60 80% 0.12

Bad Fixes 0.40 70% 0.12

Total 5.00 85% 0.75

Table 1 is an excerpt from the author’s book The Economics of Software Quality, Addison Wesley, 2011.

There are of course fairly wide ranges. The maximum defect potential observed for large applications of 10,000 function points is about 7.0 defects per function point. The minimum number of defects observed for small projects below 1000 function points is about 2.00 per function point. The maximum defect removal efficiency observed is about 99% and the lowest is below 80%.

Both defect prevention and defect removal are important, but this article concentrates on defect removal efficiency because it is a critical metric and fairly easy to measure.

Measuring Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE)

Serious software quality control involves measurement of defect removal efficiency (DRE). Defect removal efficiency is the percentage of defects found and repaired prior to release.

In principle the measurement of DRE is simple. Keep records of all defects found during development. After a fixed period of 90 days, add customer-reported defects to internal defects and calculate the efficiency of internal removal. If the development team found 90 defects and customers reported 10 defects, then DRE is of course 90%.

(Note that the International Software Benchmark Standards Group (ISBSG) uses release plus 30 days for DRE measures. This means that ISBSG DRE measures are higher than the author’s due to the 30-day versus 90-day intervals.)

In real life DRE measures are tricky because of bad-fix injections, defects found internally after release; defects inherited from prior releases; invalid defects; and other complicating factors.

Raising Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE) Levels

Most forms of testing are less than 50% efficient in finding bugs or defects. However, formal design and code inspections are more than 65% efficient in finding bugs or defects and often top 85%.

Static analysis is also high in efficiency against many kinds of coding defects. Therefore all leading projects in leading companies utilize formal inspections, static analysis, and formal testing. This combination is the only known way of achieving cumulative defect removal levels higher than 95% and approaching or exceeding 99%.

Table 2 illustrates the measured ranges of defect removal efficiency levels for a variety of reviews, inspections, static analysis, and several kinds of test stages.

Table 2: Pre-Test and Test Defect Removal Efficiency Ranges
Pre-Test Defect Removal Minimum Average Maximum
Formal design inspections 65.00% 87.00% 97.00%
Formal code inspections 60.00% 85.00% 96.00%
Static analysis 65.00% 85.00% 95.00%
Formal requirement inspections 50.00% 78.00% 90.00%
Pair programming 40.00% 55.00% 65.00%
Informal peer reviews 35.00% 50.00% 60.00%
Desk checking 25.00% 45.00% 55.00%
Average 48.57% 69.29% 79.71%
Test Defect Removal Minimum Average Maximum
Experiment-based testing 60.00% 75.00% 85.00%
Risk-based testing 55.00% 70.00% 80.00%
Security testing 50.00% 65.00% 80.00%
Subroutine testing 27.00% 45.00% 60.00%
System testing 27.00% 42.00% 55.00%
External Beta testing 30.00% 40.00% 50.00%
Performance testing 30.00% 40.00% 45.00%
Supply-chain testing 20.00% 40.00% 47.00%
Cloud testing 25.00% 40.00% 55.00%
Function testing 33.00% 40.00% 55.00%
Unit testing (automated) 20.00% 40.00% 50.00%
Unit testing (manual) 15.00% 38.00% 50.00%
Regression testing 35.00% 35.00% 45.00%
Independent verification 20.00% 35.00% 47.00%
Clean-room testing 20.00% 35.00% 50.00%
Acceptance testing 15.00% 35.00% 40.00%
Independent testing 15.00% 35.00% 42.00%
Average 29.24% 44.12% 55.06%

The low defect removal efficiency levels of most forms of testing explain why the best projects do not rely upon testing alone. The best projects utilize formal inspections first, static analysis, of code, code inspections for key features, and then a multi-stage testing sequence afterwards. This combination of inspections followed by static analysis and testing leads DRE in the range of 95% to 99%/ It also leads to the shortest overall development schedules, and lowers the probabilities of project failures.

Low Quality Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE) Case Study

Table 3 is a simple case study that illustrates the typical results of four common forms of testing: 1) Unit test; 2) Function test; 3) Regression test; 4) System test. Since testing is not very efficient, the results are not very good. We will also assume a traditional “waterfall” development method.

In this case study let us assume an application of 1,000 function points in size. Let us also assume a defect potential of 5.0 defects per function points. This means that total probable defects in the application will be 5,000. We will also assume that 7% of defect repairs result in “bad fixes” or new defects. Table 3 illustrates a common pattern of fairly low defect removal efficiency:

Table 3: Low Quality Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE) Example
Size (function points) = 1,000
Defect potential per function point = 5.00
Defects in application = 5,000
Bad-fix injection = 7.00%
Defect Defect
Removal Removal
Efficiency Pattern
Unit test 38%
Defects found 1,900
Bad fixes 133
Defects remaining 2,967
Function test 40%
Defects found 1,187
Bad fixes 83
Defects remaining 1,780
Regression test 35%
Defects found 623
Bad fixes 44
Defects remaining 1,114
System test 42% 468
Defects found 33
Bad fixes 613
Defects remaining

The case study in table 3 achieved only 85.32% in cumulative defect removal efficiency prior to delivery. This is because testing with no prior inspections or prior static analysis is not usually sufficient to achieve high levels of defect removal efficiency.

Table 3 is something of a professional embarrassment. No true engineering discipline should deliver a product with only about 85% of known defects removed. But such results are the norm for software applications.

High Quality Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE) Case Study

Because the example in table 3 was professionally embarrassing, let us see what happens when formal inspections are used prior to testing. Let us also assume the use of one of the more effective software development methods, Watts Humphrey’s Team Software Process (TSP). With both TSP and inspections in use, these advantages occur:

  1. Defect potentials are reduced.
  2. Defect removal efficiency levels are higher.
  3. Bad fix injections are reduced.

In this second case study let us assume the same application size of 1,000 function points. However let us also assume a defect potential of 4.5 defects per function points due to TSP. This means that total probable defects in the application will be 4,500. We will also assume that only 3.5% of defect repairs result in “bad fixes” or new defects as opposed to 7% in the prior example.

Table 4 illustrates the results of the new scenario which combines both an effective development method with a more efficient defect removal pattern:

Table 4: High Quality Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE) Example
Size (function points) = 1,000
Defect potential per function point = 4.50
Defects in application = 4,500
Bad-fix injection = 3.50%
Defect Defect
Removal Removal
Efficiency Pattern
Formal Inspections (Design, Code) 85%
Defects found 3,825
Bad fixes 134
Defects remaining 809
Unit test 42%
Defects found 340
Bad fixes 12
Defects remaining 457
Function test 45%
Defects found 206
Bad fixes 7
Defects remaining 251
Regression test 40%
Defects found 101
Bad fixes 4
Defects remaining 147
System test 47%
Defects found 69
Bad fixes 2
Defects remaining 76

When the results of Table 3 are compared with the results of Table 4, we can see that defect removal efficiency levels have climbed from an embarrassing 85.32% up to a respectable 98.33%.

Not only were inspections very efficient in finding defects, but the combination of inspections plus the formal Team Software Process also raised the efficiency level of each test stage.

Removing 100% of software defects is almost impossible, but achieving defect removal efficiency levels that are higher than 95% should be a minimum professional requirement. In fact such levels of defect removal efficiency should probably be included in software outsource contracts.

Summary and Conclusions

This article illustrates only four test stages plus formal inspections of design and code. Some large systems use inspections of requirements, design, code, and test materials. They also use static analysis tools prior to testing. In addition they may use as many as a dozen test stages rather than the four shown here. This article is intended to explain the basic principles of defect removal efficiency (DRE) but it does not cover every possible combination and permutation.

Complete elimination of software defects is beyond the current state of the art. However elevating levels of defect removal efficiency from today’s average of 85% up to more than 95% can easily be achieved. It is only necessary to use a synergistic combination of pre-test inspections, static analysis, and formal testing. But it is also necessary to measure defect removal efficiency (DRE).

Measuring defect removal efficiency (DRE) measurement and topping 95% in cumulative DRE are the signs of a top software production group. Companies that do not measure DRE are usually well below 85% when the author has been called in for an external quality benchmark study.

References and Readings

Gack, Gary; Managing the Black Hole: The Executives Guide to Software Project Risk; Business Expert Publishing, Thomson, GA; 2010; ISBN10: 1-935602-01-9.

Galorath, Dan; Software Sizing, Estimating, and Risk Management: When Performance is Measured Performance Improves; Auerbach Publishing, Philadelphia; 2006; ISBN 10: 0849335930; 576 pages.

Garmus, David and Herron, David; Function Point Analysis – Measurement Practices for Successful Software Projects; Addison Wesley Longman, Boston, MA; 2001; ISBN 0-201-69944-3;363 pages.

Gilb, Tom and Graham, Dorothy; Software Inspections; Addison Wesley, Reading, MA; 1993; ISBN 10: 0201631814.

Humphrey, Watts, TSP – Leading a Development Team; Addison Wesley, Boston, MA; ISBN o-321-34962-8; 2006; 307 pages.

Jones, Capers and Bonsignour, Olivier; The Economics of Software Quality; Addison Wesley, Boston; 2011; ISBN 10: 0-13-258220-1;587 pages.

Jones, Capers; Software Engineering Best Practices; McGraw Hill, New York, 2010; ISBN 978-0-07-162161-8; 660 pages.

Jones, Capers; Applied Software Measurement; McGraw Hill, 3rd edition 2008; ISBN 978-0-07-150244-3; 668 pages; 3rd edition (March 2008).

Jones, Capers; Estimating Software Costs; McGraw Hill, New York; 2007; ISBN 13-978-0-07-148300-1.

Jones, Capers; Software Assessments, Benchmarks, and Best Practices; Addison Wesley Longman, Boston, MA; ISBN 0-201-48542-7; 2000; 657 pages.

Jones, Capers; Assessment and Control of Software Risks; Prentice Hall, 1994; ISBN 0-13-741406-4; 711 pages.

Kan, Stephen H.; Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering, 2nd edition; Addison Wesley Longman, Boston, MA; ISBN 0-201-72915-6; 2003; 528 pages.

Radice, Ronald A.; High Quality Low Cost Software Inspections; Paradoxicon Publishing Andover, MA; ISBN 0-9645913-1-6; 2002; 479 pages.

Wiegers, Karl E.; Peer Reviews in Software – A Practical Guide; Addison Wesley Longman, Boston, MA; ISBN 0-201-73485-0; 2002; 232 pages.

Systems Engineering News

PMI and INCOSE Align to Help Organizations Improve Program Success

Program managers and systems engineers each play leadership roles in the design and implementation of key organizational initiatives. These can include rebuilding infrastructure, creating improvements to healthcare delivery, managing equipment acquisition for national defense, delivering competitive new products and properly allocating resources. At times, however, these professionals apply different approaches to initiatives based their own distinct practices, which can delay success.

In order to help organizations overcome the resultant inefficiencies, the Project Management Institute (PMI) and the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) – two leading professional membership organizations – have announced a strategic alliance that will enhance overall program success through the improved integration of practices between their professional communities. PMI and INCOSE will work together to provide members with tools to maximize the shared skills and experiences that are essential for successful program execution in this fast paced and continuously changing world. The associations will solidify initiatives that support stronger integration between the two professions, starting with developing case studies on successful collaborative projects and furthering dialogue with their stakeholder communities.

“When it comes to an organization’s success, the whole is the sum of its parts,” said Mark A. Langley, president and CEO of the Project Management Institute. “Our alignment with INCOSE will help program managers and systems engineers – both critical ‘parts’ of an organization, strategically and operationally – leverage each other’s strengths to deliver improved program results that better support their organizations’ strategic goals. In addition, it will foster new skill sets and networking opportunities for the members of both associations, driving professional growth.”

“In an environment of increasing complexity, organizations face enormous challenges creating systems that meet performance specifications, on time and on budget,” said Samantha Robitaille, president of INCOSE. “By working with PMI, we have the potential to significantly improve performance on these complex programs by establishing an integrated team approach that will ultimately benefit not only the members of both associations, but also the organizations they work for and those organizations’ stakeholders.”

PMI and INCOSE’s first joint initiative produced a white paper, “Toward a New Mindset: Bridging the Gap between Program Management and Systems Engineering,” which details the need for better professional integration. In addition, the two organizations will jointly sponsor the following:

  • The Program Management Lean Enablers Working Session, which will take place at the PMI® Global Congress 2011—North America on Saturday, 22 October 2011 from 7:30 a.m. – 12:30 p.m. U.S. Central Daylight Time. Along with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Lean Advancement Initiative (MIT-LAI), PMI and INCOSE will engage program management professionals in exercises to validate critical program management challenges that can affect delivery of stakeholder value and business results. The participants will then apply MIT-LAI’s principles of lean management to those challenges by validating collected lean enablers and identifying additional ones. There is no registration fee to attend this session, but individuals must register in advance by visiting http://congresses.pmi.org/NorthAmerica2011/.
  • A workshop titled, “Integrating Program Management and Systems Engineering,” which also will be held in conjunction with the PMI Global Congress 2011—North America on Monday, 24 October 2011 from 9:30 – 10:45 a.m. U.S. Central Daylight Time. The workshop will explore the unique skills and experiences systems engineers and program managers possess, along with the shared space where they collaborate to drive program team performance and success. This workshop is part of the PMI Congress program, and individuals must register for the full Congress or for the day to attend. To register, visit http://congresses.pmi.org/NorthAmerica2011/.
  • An article series highlighting effective integration of program management and systems engineering; and
  • A research study jointly published with MIT-LAI, which will be available in the first quarter of 2012.

More information:


Megan Maguire Kelly, +1 610-356-4600 x7030




Holly Witte, +1 800-366-1164 +1 800-366-1164


Resilience Innovation Laboratory and the (Newly Formed) Resilience Engineering Association

The latest newsletter for the Resilience Innovation Laboratory (RIL) is available at http://resilience‐innovationlab.org.

The Resilience Engineering Association has been officially founded—see www.resilience-engineering-asso.org/.

Jon Holt Valorizes MBSE with his Lecture: “Making Houdini Safe”

Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) meets Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) on Pythagoras’ Trousers. The worlds of systems engineering and

escapology overlap when Dr Jon Holt puts his life on the line recreating and re-engineering

Houdini’s classic upside down straitjacket escape, but on a burning rope! Jon demonstrates how rigorous engineering techniques can be applied to safety-critical systems (any system where people may be hurt if things go wrong) by performing this classic stunt. Jon has previously won awards for his original and innovative approaches to teaching and disseminating engineering best practice and this stunt shows his latest, and most spectacular effort to date. Jon, a member of the INCOSE UK Chapter, previously delivered this lecture last year at the international MBSE conference at GMU. You can listen to this lecture now at www.rhysphillips.co.uk/pythagoras-trousers/the-pythagoras-lectures-series-1-episode-7/

Pythagoras’ Trousers is a radio show from the South Wales Networks of the Institution of

Engineering & Technology and Radio Cardiff. Each week, presenter Rhys Phillips takes a look at stories of interest from the worlds of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, bringing these fields to a wider audience and promoting these subject areas to school pupils.

Mentor Graphics SystemVision Wins NI LabVIEW Award for Platform Extension

Mentor Graphics Corporation announced on September 1st that its SystemVision(R) conneXion(TM) (SVX) collaboration environment received the National Instrument’s LabVIEW Add-on of the Year Award for platform extension. The LabVIEW Add-on of the Year awards recognize products that have delivered innovative solutions to the marketplace, enabling advances in engineering and scientific applications through a graphical system design approach with LabVIEW system design software. These awards are presented to developers who have created exceptional add-ons or apps in the areas of: Test, Industrial and Embedded, Community, VI Library, Platform Extension, and Innovation. This integration allows cross-disciplinary engineering teams to bridge the gap between design and test, resulting in shortened design cycles,” said Jeff Meisel, LabVIEW Partner Program Manager, National Instruments.

More information


Streamline Systems Demonstrates Agility with New Organizational Modeling Capability

AX 2012 reduces administrative costs and overhead associated with dynamic organization changes, such as acquisitions, company restructuring, and responding to changes in the labor market. According to Al Galinot, Vice-President of Professional Services and co-founder of Streamline Systems, “AX 2012 is powerful, with more than a thousand new features, most of which are designed to extend the capabilities for the people who need them most, the knowledge workers on the front lines who get the work done every day. This interactive demand and supply screen, enables a supply chain professional to view and act upon all the actions required to keep the company supplies moving, in one, concise, and easy-to-use workspace.”

More information http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/sbwire-106488.htm

Northrop Grumman Information Systems President Neil G. Siegel Awarded Systems Engineering Award

Northrop Grumman Vice President and Chief Engineer of its Information Systems sector Neil G. Siegel, has recently been awarded the 2011 IEEE Simon Ramo Medal for his work in systems engineering. IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional association.

Siegel is being recognized for his work at Northrop Grumman and helping the firm become a leader in battlefield digitization. The IEEE Simon Ramon Medal honors exceptional achievement in systems engineering and systems science. “By bringing information technology and wireless communications to the battlefield, Siegel has revolutionized the military’s response to the war on terror and most importantly has saved lives of U.S. and allied forces,” said stated IEEE.

Kansas Adopts System to Detect Aid Fraud

Three top Kansas officials said Tuesday that they would stop more fraudulent claims for state assistance on the front end by using a new $85 million database system. Under a contract signed with the Austin-based firm Accenture on Monday, the state will be able to link more of its databases together to find instances where people applying for assistance provide inconsistent or incorrect information about their income, age or other factors. Once an applicant is flagged, state officials will look deeper to see whether it is a fraudulent claim or an inconsistency related to a change in income, name or other factor. The system also should speed processing of applications for assistance. In addition to the $85 million price tag, it will cost about $50 million over five years to operate the Kansas Eligibility Enforcement System — or KEES. It should be operable by 2013.

More Information http://www.kansascity.com/2011/08/30/3110753/kansas-adopts-system-to-detect.html#ixzz1XH3EJ4G1

Strategy Bridge Presentation Accepted for NDIA Systems Engineering Conference

Strategy Bridge International will be presenting “Systems Engineering: The Key to Successful Outcomes” at the 14th Annual National Defense Industrial Association Systems Engineering Conference. The presentation offers a deeper understanding of systems engineering principles. The paper is a collaboration of Mark Wilson and Fred Manzer, Strategy Bridge’s CEO and Director of Project Management, respectively, will describe how classic systems engineering practices apply to everyday life. “Systems engineering is often seen as a job description,” says the paper’s co-author, Paul AmRhein, “a role that applies only to large and complex projects or programs. But we contend that systems engineering is not merely a project implementation discipline, but a perspective to enable anyone to better understand and address any situation, regardless of one’s technical background.” This unique look into Systems Engineering uses relevant examples to evaluate the professional philosophy that move systems engineering to the forefront of success in any endeavor. “Systems engineers approach any situation using basic principles that shape outcomes. These principles are the foundations of systems engineering,” AmRhein continues. “Systems engineers tend to see everything in a larger context. We call this ‘Systems Thinking.’”

More Information http://www.prweb.com/releases/2011/8/prweb8715824.htm

IBM and University of Texas at Austin Develop a Flood Prediction System

In the aftermath of Hurricane Irene, which caused flooding on the East Coast, it is good to know that IBM and researchers at the University of Texas at Austin are developing better flood prediction technology. The technology could predict flooding several days in advance, which would allow more time to evacuate and prepare. Since floods are a common natural disaster in the U.S., that is indeed good news. Researchers are testing the system on the entire 230 miles of the Guadalupe River in Texas, and over 9,000 miles of tributaries. Flood prediction methods typically focus on the main steams of the largest rivers, and overlook tributary networks where flood starts. The new system can predict the river’s behaviour at over 100 times its normal speed. The system, which is being run on IBM’s Power 7 system, can generate up to 100 hours of river behaviour in one hour. “Effective flood preparedness can be looked at as a large scale computing problem, with a huge number of relevant data and independencies,” said Frank Liu, Research Staff Member at IBM Research – Austin. “Using advanced models to simulate the scores of tributaries of large rivers along with other relevant real-time information such as weather, we are better able to give people valuable advance notice of a flood.”

More Information www.triplepundit.com/2011/08/hurricane-irene-smart-grid/

Featured Society – TBD

More information


Call for Nominations


The INCOSE Board of Directors has delegated the responsibility for collecting nominations and identifying suitable candidates to the Nominations and Elections Committee. There are eight positions for which it is possible to still submit nominations (President-elect nominations closed on June 30th). In the fall of 2011, you will have the opportunity to vote for the positions which become vacant in 2012.

Position descriptions can be found on the INCOSE website.

All submissions must be received no later than 1 September 2011. All members may identify INCOSE Member candidates for this election. You may nominate yourself. Please send the name of your proposed candidate to the Chair of the Nominations & Elections Committee, Pat Hale as soon as possible.

Upcoming INCOSE Events

Remember to visit the INCOSE website to check the events calendar periodically for updates on calls for papers, early-bird registrations, and other news!

To submit an event, please send an e-mail to comms@incose.org

September 21 – 23, 2011: INCOSE SA Annual Conference

October 14 – 16, 2011 KSE 2011 Third International Conference on Knowledge and Systems Engineering

October 19 – 21, 2011: Fifth annual Asia-Pacific Systems Engineering Conference (APCOSE)

November 04 – 06, 2011 5th Annual INCOSE Great Lakes Regional conference

December 07 – 09, 2011: Second International Conference on Complex Systems Design and Management (CSDM 2011)


INSIGHT is the newsletter of International Council on Systems Engineering. It is published four times per year (January, April, July, and October). INSIGHT features status and information about INCOSE’s technical work, local chapters, and committees and boards. Additionally, related events, editorials, book reviews, trends, and how-to-do articles that are pertinent to the many aspects of a systems engineer’s job are also included, as space permits. For upcoming submission deadlines and themes for INSIGHT—see www.incose.org/ProductsPubs/periodicals/insight.aspx

Back issues of INSIGHT are available in the Members Area and INCOSE Connect, INCOSE’s Members Only Collaborative space.


eNote is the electronic newsletter of INCOSE. Published every four to six weeks, eNote is a compilation of INCOSE news, event announcements, and items of interest for our members. Subscriptions to eNote are available to INCOSE members as part of their membership. See www.incose.org/newsevents/enote/index.aspx

eNote features INCOSE information as well as notes from systems engineering and related fields. Questions and comments as well as submissions for future eNotes should be directed to the eNote Editorial Team.

INCOSE Operations

Autonomous System Test & Evaluation Working Group


Contact jack.ring@incose.org for additional information or to join this group.


Members intend to develop and promote principles and practices for autonomous systems test and evaluation that produce confident assessment and diagnosis of system(s) capability, whenever and wherever needed.


Co-Chair: Jack Ring, Educe LLC
Co-Chair: Americas Thomas Tenorio, ATA
Co-Chair: Quality Don Greenlee
Co-Chair: Emea open
Co-Chair: Oceana open

Accomplishments / Products

Formed IW09

Members conducted tutorials and presented papers at five ITEA and NIST sessions.

Activity Report, INSIGHT, 12/2009

Current Projects

Develop Ontology of Autonomy v.1.

Assess 20 tenets.

Tutorials at ITEA 2010 sessions including LVC, Test Week, Technology Week and annual symposium.

Meetings at INCOSE IW10 and IS10.

Attract members involved in non-DoD autonomy, e.g., a) planetary vehicles, b) medical robotics and prosthetics, c) semiconductor chips, d) nanomachines, e) voting machines, h) spacecraft, i) knowledge webs, j) energy grid, k) GEOSS, l) net-centric warfare, m) cybersecurity, n) intelligent transportation networks, o) transnational financial systems and p) proactive learning environments.

Systems Engineering Software Tools News

Research and Markets: A Practical Guide to SysML. Edition No. 2 is Written by the Leader and Two Key Members of the OMG SysML Standardization Team

Fully updated to cover newly released version 1.3, it includes a full description of the modeling language along with a quick reference guide, and shows how an organization or project can transition to model-based systems engineering using SysML, with considerations for processes, methods, tools, and training. Numerous examples help readers understand how SysML can be used in practice, while reference material facilitates studying for the OMG Systems Modeling Professional (OCSMP) Certification Program, designed to test candidates’ knowledge of SysML and their ability to use models to represent real-world systems.

More information http://www.newsday.com/news/nation/research-and-markets-a-practical-guide-to-sysml-edition-no-2-is-written-by-the-leader-and-two-key-members-of-the-omg-sysml-standardization-team-1.3151475

Systems Engineering Books, Reports, Articles and Papers

Systems Engineering Principles and Practice

(Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management)


Alexander Kossiakoff, William N. Sweet, Sam Seymour, and Steven M. Biemer

Systems Engineering Principles and Practice (Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management)

Abstract: Systems Engineering Principles and Practice is a national standard textbook for the study of traditional systems engineering for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. It addresses the need for an introductory overview, first-text for the development and acquisition of complex technical systems. The material is well organized, readable and fundamental to learning how to think like a systems engineer and carry out best practices in the field. Since systems engineering is still developing as a discipline, there have been new concepts and practices that have entered the field since the text was published in 2003. As an increasing number of students have used the text, topics have been discovered that would benefit from expansion, integration and clarification. The second edition (2011) was developed by colleagues of the original authors to upgrade this unique interdisciplinary guide to systems engineering to maintain relevance and currency in this rapidly changing and demanding field.

More information http://www.amazon.com/Systems-Engineering-Principles-Practice-Management/dp/0470405481/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1315467109&sr=1-1

Conferences and Meetings

IS2012 International Symposium, Call for Papers, Panels and Tutorials

Rome, Italy, July 9 – 12, 2012

The INCOSE International Symposium (IS) is the premier international forum for Systems Engineering. Participants network, share ideas, knowledge and practices, and learn more about the most recent innovations, trends, experiences and issues in Systems Engineering. Paper authors, panelists and tutorial presenters are encouraged to address ways in which Systems Engineering principles and perspectives are performed today and how Systems Engineering may influence our future. Topics of value include technology insertion, process improvements, and organizational governance of the systems we make, manage, operate and maintain over their life cycle, to the benefit of mankind.

Start writing now to have your submission ready in time. Share your latest research or project experience with the larger systems engineering community. The call for papers was issued during IS 2011, but as usual, any theme is accepted. The deadline for draft papers and proposals for panels and tutorials for IS2012 is November 8th, 2011 and will not be extended. Consider volunteering as a reviewer through your favorite working group. More information about submissions and a call for reviewers will be sent out in October.



Mike Celentano

Chair Technical Program

E: mike.celentano@incose.org


Karin Moens

ASK International Conference

Fax: +33 (0)5 67 69 90 15

E: karin.moens@incose.org


Draft Papers Submission:

8 November 2011

Acceptance Notification:

22 February 2012

Final Papers Due:

19 March 2012

More information www.incose.org/newsevents/news/details.aspx?id=233

IIBA Webinar Series

International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA) Webinars have something for everyone: from new BAs to the experienced practitioner; for the person thinking of changing professions to managers of BAs. Participate in an IIBA webinar to increase your BA knowledge and skills and get expert advice on difficult problems.

IIBA currently hosts at least four webinars each month on a variety of topics to help both individual BAs improve their skills as well as organizations improve their BA practices.

Webinar Speaker Date 2011 Register
Being a BA – Technical Excellence:
Making it Happen
Tom Karasmanis Tuesday

August 30

Being a BA – Effective Communication:
To Be Announced
Paticia Davies

Halina St James

Julian Sammy


September 6

IIBA Spotlight – Business Rules and Data Requirements: Analyzing in Tandem for Success Mary Gorman Thursday

September 8

CEO Screen Side Chat Kathleen Barret Monday

September 12

Being a BA – Your Career:
Technical Awareness
Laura Brandenburg Tuesday

September 13

ABC Webinar –
Telling Stories: A Short Path to Writing Better Software Requirements
Benjamin Rinzler Wednesday

September 21

Being a BA – Technical Excellence:
To be announced
Tom Karasmanis Tuesday

September 27


All webinars are archived, and can be viewed with audio within 5 business days. Webinars will be at 12p.m. EDT UTC/GMT -4 and are for members only, unless otherwise stated.

How to participate and watch webinars

Enterprise Transformation Conference

The Journal of Enterprise Transformation (JET), in collaboration with the Institute of Industrial Engineers, is organizing the inaugural Enterprise Transformation Conference on October 4-5, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The conference is designed to align people, processes, and technology initiatives within an organization. Keynote speakers are from Coca-Cola, Verizon, and Georgia Institute of Technology.

More Information www.iienet2.org/ETConference/

No Magic World Conference

Join your peers at No Magic’s second annual World Conference 2011 September 25-28 in Ft. Worth, Texas.

-Network and interact with UML, SysML and Enterprise

-Architecture industry experts

-Top-notch keynote addresses and informative panels with industry thought-leaders

-Valuable industry training tracks and interactive breakout sessions

-Experienced industry leaders delivering the information you need

All meals, sessions, training and receptions are included with registration.

The premier modeling, simulation and analysis event of 2011, all in one venue

Who should attend: CIOs, Systems Engineers, Project Managers, Business Analysts, Enterprise Architects, Software Architects, and Developers.

What you will learn: UML, SysML, Enterprise Architecture (including DoDAF/MODAF/UPDM), Simulation, Ontology and more about No Magic’s technology.

Contact Us:

No Magic, Inc.

7304 Alma Drive, Suite 600

Plano, TX 75025, USA


The 23rd IFIP International Conference on Testing Software and Systems (ICTSS’11)

November 7-9, 2011, Paris, France

Located at Institut Henri Poincare, 75005 Paris

The ICTSS’11 is the successor of ICTSS’10 in Natal, Brazil http://sbmf2010.dimap.ufrn.br/ and previous (joint) conferences TESTCOM and FATES. ICTSS’11 aims at being a forum for researchers, developers, testers, and users to review, discuss, and learn about new approaches, concepts, theories, methodologies, tools, and experiences in the field of testing of communicating systems and general software. Since testing, if done systematically, is known to be a laborious and very cost-intensive task, the ICTSS series of international conferences addresses the conceptual, theoretic, and practical problems of testing software systems, including communication protocols, services, distributed platforms, middleware, controllers and security infrastructures.

More Information http://ictss2011.lri.fr/

ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on

Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems

October 16-21, 2011

Wellington, New Zealand

Register online at http://www.modelsconference.org/Registration before

16 September to take advantage of the early bird registration rates! MODELS is the premier venue for the exchange of innovative ideas and experiences of model-based approaches in the development of complex systems. The conference series covers all aspects of model-based development for software and systems engineering, including modeling languages, methods, tools, and their applications. The theme for MODELS 2011 is “Modeling in 2020”. The theme has been selected to encourage fresh thinking about the future role of modeling in complex systems engineering.

More Information http://modelsconference.org/

Education and Academia

Postdoctoral Research Position at Oxford Brookes University

A 3 year postdoctoral research post is available on a project entitled ‘A Process for Risk-Driven Requirements Engineering and Analysis (APRES)’. The full advert is available at: https://edm.brookes.ac.uk/hr/hr/vacancies.do?id=13766980

Applicants should have either a PhD in computer science or related discipline or a PhD close to completion; or experience in disseminating research findings through high quality publications and/or conference presentations.

For further information please contact Rachel Harrison (Email:


Research Associate in Systems of Systems Engineering

Loughborough University

Department: Electronic and Electrical Engineering

Role Type: Research

Vacancy Posted: Wednesday 24 August 2011

Closing Date: Thursday 22 September 2011

Salary/Benefits: 27,428 to 31,798 per annum

Systems of Systems Management

A Research Associate is required for a European Union project, the aim of which is to analyse international research agendas to prepare concrete joint RD initiatives for international collaboration, with the USA in the area of Systems of Systems (SoS).

The main responsibilities of the post are to analyse current activities in Systems of Systems Management in both the US and European Union, across a range of industrial and commercial sectors, in order to establish research gaps and priorities to be instantiated in the strategic research agenda to be created by the project.

It is essential for candidates to have a good degree in a systems related area, knowledge and understanding of systems thinking and systems engineering approaches and current experience in an academic or industrial environment. Candidates must have good communication skills.

Curriculum Vitae will only be accepted if accompanied by a completed University application form.

Informal Discussions

For informal discussions, please contact Professor Mike Henshaw (Professor of Systems Engineering) by email or on +44 (0)1509 635269


Job Description: (257 Kb)

Conditions of Employment: (31 Kb)

Application Form: (1519 Kb) (102 Kb)

Equal Opportunities Form: (22 Kb) (43 Kb)

Printed copies of these documents can be obtained from the contact shown below.

Interviews – Tuesday 27 September 2011


Completed applications (and an equal opportunities form for Loughborough University vacancies) should be sent, by email or post, to the contact shown below. Please quote the relevant job reference in all correspondence.

Human Resources Email: Electrical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Engineering, Human Resources, Professor, Research Associate, UK, USA

Philadelphia University Receives Rigorous ABET Accreditation for Engineering, Industrial and Systems Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering Programs

Philadelphia University has received accreditation for three engineering programs from the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET Inc., which the accrediting association says demonstrates a program’s commitment to providing its students with a quality education. PhilaU received accreditation for all three programs for which it applied: B.S. programs in engineering, industrial and systems engineering, and mechanical engineering. In addition, any minors within those programs, such as the University’s new concentration in composites, will be covered by the accreditation.

More information http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/philadelphia-university-receives-rigorous-abet-accreditation-for-engineering-industrial-and-systems-engineering-and-mechanical-engineering-programs-128675333.html

Some Systems Engineering-Relevant Websites

Ten Ugly Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Tools that Actually Rock


Standards and Guides

About ISO

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world’s largest developer and publisher of International Standards. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society.

Because “International Organization for Standardization” would have different acronyms in different languages (“IOS” in English, “OIN” in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), its founders decided to give it also a short, all-purpose name. They chose “ISO”, derived from the Greek isos, meaning “equal”. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization’s name is always ISO.

Standards make an enormous and positive contribution to most aspects of our lives.

Standards ensure desirable characteristics of products and services such as quality, environmental friendliness, safety, reliability, efficiency and interchangeability – and at an economical cost. When products and services meet our expectations, we tend to take this for granted and be unaware of the role of standards. However, when standards are absent, we soon notice. We soon care when products turn out to be of poor quality, do not fit, are incompatible with equipment that we already have, are unreliable or dangerous. When products, systems, machinery and devices work well and safely, it is often because they meet standards. And the organization responsible for many thousands of the standards which benefit the world is ISO.

What’s different about ISO 9001 and ISO 14001?

The vast majority of ISO standards are highly specific to a particular product, material, or process. However, ISO 9001 (quality) and ISO 14001 (environment) are “generic management system standards“. “Generic” means that the same standard can be applied to any organization, large or small, whatever its product or service, in any sector of activity, and whether it is a business enterprise, a public administration, or a government department. ISO 9001 contains a generic set of requirements for implementing a quality management system and ISO 14001 for an environmental management system.

The website www.iso.org/iso/standards_development.htm provides information about the standards  development processes and procedures to be followed by ISO committees for the development and drafting (and subsequent maintenance) of International Standards and other ISO deliverables. You can also find the list of all ISO technical committees with links to their respective working areas on the ISOTC server. Detailed information about the structure, scope of work, participation, etc., of each committee is accessible from this list. Governance of the technical work explains the principles and rules applicable to the standards development process and gives details about intellectual property rights in standards. The section also gives access to the various tools and related supporting services available to facilitate the work of standards developers.

How International Standards Create Global Confidence

In an era of economic globalization, rapid development of information and communication technologies, increase in personal mobility, feelings of uncertainty and the challenge of facing diverse kind of risks, how to remain confident? International Standards are the key to creating confidence globally. The September issue of ISO Focus+ magazine highlights how ISO standards help create confidence in products, services and in global trade. The articles cover a range of issues from conformity assessment and energy to health and safety and illustrate and support this year’s theme of World Standards Day, celebrated on 14 October, which is dedicated to International Standards and global confidence.

More information www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm?refid=Ref1458

Announcing IEEE’s New Standards Education e-Magazine

IEEE is launching the IEEE Standards Education eZine to keep information in front of those who are interested in education about standards. “The topics we intend to address include challenges and opportunities for teaching about standards in engineering curriculum. Though we may focus on and use examples from various IEEE standards, you can apply the same information for other standards such as those from ANSI, IEC or any of the national standards. As a format, it is neither a print-format magazine, nor a periodical that appears all-at-once whether on-line or in print. It is a not a blog by one person, nor is it an exclusive compendium of scholarly articles. We intend to have regular columns, expert views, worthwhile standards experiences from different regions of the world, and information about various conferences, seminars, and workshops that the IEEE Standards Education Committee (SEC) sponsors and participates in. Over time, you will see the IEEE Standards Education eZine served in many of these forms, though printing will have to be at your end.”

More information http://ieee-elearning.org/outreach/mod/book/view.php?id=315

A Definition to Close on


PPI News

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PPI Events (see www.ppi-int.com)

Systems Engineering Public 5-Day Courses (2011)

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Requirements Analysis and Specification Writing Public Courses (2011)

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Software Engineering Public 5-Day Courses (2011)

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OCD/CONOPS Public Courses (2011)

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Cognitive Systems Engineering Courses (2011)

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PPI Upcoming Participation in Professional Conferences

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Kind regards from the SyEN team:

Robert Halligan, Managing Editor, email: rhalligan@ppi-int.com

Ralph Young, CSEP, Editor, email: ryoung@ppi-int.com

Luke Simpson, Production, email: lsimpson@ppi-int.com

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